Type II Diabetes Mellitus & Insulin Resistance
Worldwide, 463 million people are living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as per the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2019 and by 2045, it is expected to rise to 700 million. This chronic, metabolic disease is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose due to the development of insulin resistance and over time, leads to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. Type 2 Diabetes and its complications produce a huge socio-economic burden to the patient, their family, community and the state worldwide; leaving the patient in lifetime medications, treatments and suffering.
Understanding the depth of the problem, R & I unit of the DMMC is developing a point of care diagnostic device capable of early detection of high insulin levels, allowing the clinician for early interventions and thereby helping the patients from further development of this pre-diabetic condition into diabetes mellitus and its related complications
Globally oral cancer (OC) is a health concern and in India ~77,000 new cases and ~52,000 deaths are reported annually. In Kerala the prevalence of OC is, ~1.08%. Public health studies have revealed vulnerability to OC in those who are excessively exposed to causative agents such as -alcohol, tobacco products, betel nut, unhygienic oral condition, poor diet and sustained viral infections that include the human papillomavirus. This disease is found prevalent in the local community of Wayanad due to the life style / habits. The survival rate of OC patients detected at advanced stage is ~50%, while those diagnosed at early-stage have >85% survival rate and Currently, physical examination of oral cavity is practiced for detection of OC which is visible after the lesion is progressed to an advanced size. Since early detection is the key factor to reduce morbidity and increase chance of survival, it is necessary to develop novel and sensitive methods for early OC detection and therefore, the R & I unit is working in the development of a point of care (POC) screening tool for biomarker detection in non-invasively collected saliva sample. Detection of biomarkers may be a more sensitive method for diagnosis of OC at an early stage.
Tissue Engineering & 3D Bio-printing
Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering has shown huge potential in translational medicine and many conventional clinical problems have been successfully answered. 3D Bio printing of tissues and organs is the most advanced technology in tissue engineering and it is expected to create revolutions in modern medicine. By this technique, 3D functional living tissues can be printed using a Bio-ink composed of Bio-compatible materials, cells and supporting components using a sophisticated printing device. The R & I unit of DMMC is focusing on bio engineered and 3D Bio-printed tissue constructs for clinical conditions like Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD), and Nuerodegenerative diseases and the 3D Bio printed tissue constructs has multiple applications like drug testing models, implantation therapy etc. Another area being worked upon for similar applications is 3D Bio-printed skin substitute. Development of the bio-ink is in process at the R & I lab.